1. For more on Yermalov's campaign in 1816 and the general history of Russian occupation of Chechnya see Anatol Lieven , Chechnya : Tombstone of Russian Power (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.316.

2. Chechen guerillas successfully fought off president Yeltsin's ill-planned invasion in 1994 -1996. A second invasion commenced in 1999 following the election of Vladimir Putin who had promised during his campaign to atone for the military failings of his predecessor. For a general history of the two wars in the 1990s as well as an illuminating first-hand account of Chechen Zikr see Sebastian Smith, Allah's Mountains: The Battle for Chechnya (New York: IB Tauris Publishers, 2001).

3. For a summary of alleged human rights abuses committed by Russian military forces in Chechnya including arbitrary arrest, incommunicado detention, torture and extrajudicial execution see Human Rights Watch. 'Welcome to Hell': Arbitrary Detention, Torture, and Extortion in Chechnya ( New York : Human Rights Watch, 2000). In recent years Chechen militants have resorted to attacking civilian targets in Russia . The most lethal attack occurred on 23 October, 2002 , when fifty armed Chechens stormed into a crowded theater in Moscow held more than 700 spectators hostage . The standoff ended three days later when Russian authorities pumped an opiate gas through the ventilation shafts and stormed the building. Two hostages were executed by the Chechens and at least 129 died from the gas. All of the hostage takers were shot by Russian Special Forces. Read more from Robyn Dixon, "In The Caucasus, a Foreign Element Threatens." The Los Angeles Times . ( November 29, 2002 ), A5, A8 and Michael Wines, "Russia Vows Crackdown on Chechen Guerillas: Rebels Shoot Down Military Helicopter," The New York Times: International Herald Tribune ( November 4, 2002 ) p.10.

4. For an illuminating account of the early Russian occupation of the Northern Caucasus based on his own experience as a soldier serving under Czar Alexander II see: Leo Tolstoy, Hadji Murad (Alexandria: Orchises Press,1996), pp. 89, 114, 101, 112. (Page numbers highlight references to songs of the mountaineers, which tend to glorify resistance to Russians.)

5. Chechnya and Dagestan shared close ties in their resistance to Russian rule since Imam Shamil's armed revolt in 1824 which established the unification of Chechnya and Dagestan as a single Islamic state.

6. For more on the history of Chechen resistance to Russian invasion under Shamil, see Anatol Lieven , Chechnya : Tombstone of Russian Power (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.311.

7. Terry Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939 ( Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 2001)

8. Ibid., p. 294.

9. In the 1930s for example, quotas were set in Chechnya which mandated that ethnic Chechens hold at least 50% of the seats in local government. Martin, Affirmative Action, p.172

10. A. Davidenko, ed. Sbornik narodnykh chechenskikh melodii i pesen, zapisannykh i obrabotannykh dlia fortepiano v 2 ruki Moskva: Gos. muzykalnoe izd-vo, 1935.

11. Will Prentice, "Before the Revolution: A 1909 Recording Expedition in the Caucasus and Central Asia by the Gramophone Company." London : Topic Records, compact disc, TSCD921, 2002.

12. Rechmenskii's collection, though it does not mention Sufi zikr does mention nationalistic folk songs. For a description of the musical aspects of zikr see: Eckhard Neubauer and Veronica Doubleday, “Islamic Religious Music: Sufism and Popular Islam,” ed. L.Macy (Accessed 21 February 2004) http://grovemusic.com

13. For the examples of Chechen folk music which I analyzed, I entered the notation as indicated in the score into a MIDI sequencing program, attempting to follow the expressed tempo, dynamic, and ornamentation as closely as possible. Davidenko, Sbornik narodnykh chechenskikh melodii i pesen , p.11.

14. Robert Conquest, The Nation Killers: The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (London: Macmillan and Co, 1970), p.41.

15. It is worthwhile to mention that the poem was translated from a Soviet book on Chechen-Ingush folklore in 1940. Conquest, The Nation Killers, p.42.

16. Lieven , Chechnya , p.118

17. Ibid. , p.316.

18. Ibid. , p.319

19. "Chaos in the Caucasus : Islamic Terrorism in Russia " Economist 353 (1999) p. 23.

20. Smith, Allah's Mountains, p.40.

21. Robert Conquest, Soviet Nationalities Policy in Practice (New York: Frederick A. Praeger Inc., 1967) p.86.

22. Smith, Allah's Mountains , p.2.

23. Lieven , Chechnya , p.321.

24. Nikolai Sergeevich Rechmenskii, Chechenskie i Ingushskie narodnye melodii i pesni, sostavitel , Moskva : Sov. Kompozitor, 1962. Rechmenskii was among the "first generation" of soviet trained Chechen composers, educated between 1900 and 1950. Others in his generation include A. Khalebskii, L. Shargorodskii, V. Ashkenazi, and G. Mepurnov. The second generation includes U. Beksultanov, S. Dimaev, and B. Shnaper. Among these, Rechmenskii is the only one to have published works now available in the University of California Library system.

25. Nikolai Sergeevich Rechmenskii, Chechenskie i Ingushskie narodnye melodii i pesni, sostavitel, Moskva : Sov. Kompozitor, 1962.

26. Rechmenskii, Chechenskie , 1962, pp. 8-10.

27. Ibid., pp. 12-13.

28. Rechmenskii acknowledged this characteristic as idiomatic of Chechen music his book, Muzykalnaia kultura Checheno-Ingushskoi ASSR . Moskva: Muzyka, 1965.

29. Rechmenskii, Muzykalnaia , 1965.

30. Ibid., pp. 14, 19.

31. Rechmenskii, Chechenskie , 1962, p. 67-69.

32. Martin, Affirmative Action, p. 373.